Darren Rowles


Pope Innocent XI


            Pope Innocent XI, born as Benedetto Odescalchi, is widely regarded as the best Pope of the seventeenth century.[1]  “All contemporary reports are full of his praise; they describe him as an extraordinarily devout man, a stern defender of the Church’s immunity, a father to the poor, an enemy of nepotism and an advocate of ecclesiastical and secular reform.”[2]  Indeed, one modern commentator rates Pope Innocent XI among the fourteen best popes of all time (there have been two hundred and sixty-five Popes in the history of the Catholic church).[3]



            Pope Innocent XI was a healthy man who enjoyed walking for exercise. Perhaps because he enjoyed exercise, Innocent XI looked younger than his age.  The most famous description of his appearance is as follows:

He was venerable and majestic in appearance, his stature a foot taller than the average Italian; his mien was tempered by a serious and lively gravity; robust constitution and phlegmatic temperament, inclined somewhat to melancholy, and highly suitable to the dignity of a Vicar of Christ, rendering the man prudent, pacific, and capable of great undertakings.  His limbs were well arranged and composed, although his left arm had a little impediment; a wide forehead, a long face with bright eyes, a long aquiline nose, and his chin protruding outward slightly.  Although he showed a modicum of austerity in his appearance, he was so benign and venerable, that at a single glance, he would gain the love and reverence of men.[4]

Another description of a portrait of Benedetto Odescalchi focuses on his facial features:

[His face] [a]ppears long and drawn, his features distinguished, a very fine nose, the eyes intensely alert, the moustache turned up and ‘coquette,’ the mouth no less carefully done.  No other part of a beard exists; his white neck firmly in place, his temperament seems delicate; in sum, the portrait does not reveal Odescalchi’s more than sixty-five years.[5]


Birth and Life before the Papacy

Benedetto Odescalchi was born one of seven children on May 19, 1611 in Como, Italy.  Benedetto’s family was wealthy and well-connected: “[b]y the end of the sixteenth century the name Odescalchi had achieved an international reputation in political, ecclesiastical, and business circles.”[6]  Even today, the wealth of the Odescalchi family is apparent.  Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes held an elaborate wedding on Nov. 18, 2006 at an Odescalchi Castle in Italy.[7]

            Benedetto’s parents, who were devout Christians, introduced him to religion at an early age.  Benedetto began his schooling at the Jesuit college in Como, where his studies included grammer, literature, and rhetoric.  At the age of fifteen, Benedetto left Como for the Republic of Genoa, a coastal region in northwestern Italy, to work with his uncle Papirio in one of the family’s banks from 1626-28.  Benedetto moved back to Milan in 1629 at the time a widespread infectious disease took the life of his mother.  Benedetto then traveled back to Genoa to work with Papirio.  Unfortunately, uncle Papirio died in July 1632 and Benedetto returned to Como, which was the center of the family’s businesses.     

It is unclear why Benedetto decided to move to Rome in 1636, but it is clear that at the time of his move Benedetto was only suited to pursue a career in business.  Shortly after moving to Rome, Benedetto asked the Spanish Cardinal Alfonso della Cueva for advice about his career path.  Cueva’s advice “proved to be a decisive turning point for Benedetto’s future.”[8]  Cueva persuaded Benedetto to return to academia and study law.  Commentators suggest that the study of law was encouraged by Cueva because Cueva recognized that a law degree could serve Benedetto in civil life or in service to the church.[9]  As a result of Cueva’s suggestion, Benedetto attended two years of law school at Rome and went to Naples for his last year of study, where he earned his law degree in 1639.

            It was not until the age of 29 that it became clear that Benedetto would devote his life to the Catholic Church.  Perhaps based on his experience in the banking business, the Church’s first assignment for Benedetto was tax collector in the papal territory of the Marches.[10]  Benedetto successfully carried out this role, managing to collect taxes without oppressing the poor.  His next appointments with the church came rapidly.  Pope Urban VIII appointed Benedetto governor of Macerata, a small and relatively insignificant region among the papal states, in 1643.  Following this appointment, Innocent X made Benedetto a cardinal in 1645, legate of Ferrara in 1648, and bishop of Novara in 1650.  Benedetto’s selection as cardinal at the relatively young age of 34 has been attributed to Pope Innocent X’s appreciation of his “sincere piety and especially his generous liberality towards the poor . . .”[11]

            Benedetto’s most important assignment before becoming Pope was as legate of Ferrara.  A papal legate is a messenger from the Holy See to a nation.  It was as legate of Ferrara that Benedetto was anointed “the father of the poor.”[12]  At that time Ferrara was suffering from a severe famine and deteriorating economic, social, and physical conditions.  One of the region’s main problems was its persistent scarcity of grain to feed its citizens.  In an effort to solve the regions problems, Benedetto spent a substantial amount of his own money for the purpose of importing grain to Ferrara.  In addition to his compassion for the poor, Benedetto’s interest in democratic administration during his time as legate of Ferrara was apparent.  For example, Benedetto “contrived a suggestion box, placed at the top of the palace stairs, that enabled him to poll public opinion, then a generally unknown technique; in this manner he could . . . hear complaints against judges and magistrates, the barbarian or the rich.”[13]  The people of Ferrara recognized Benedetto as “uniting firmness with lenity; chaste and unassailable in conduct, having rare contempt for riches and personal honors . . . [and] an abundance none the less rare of charity towards the poor, the religious, and in works of piety.”[14]

            In his next assignment for the church as bishop of Novara, which is in the northwestern region of Italy to the west of Milan, Benedetto continued to display his generosity towards the poor.  In fact, he used the entire funding of his office to pay for necessities for people within the diocese.  Again, his experience with finances proved useful in Novara.  Benedetto assisted with financing the city’s hospital and orphanage, and founded the diocese’s first savings and loan bank.  Despite this and many other successes as bishop of Novara, Benedetto began to get sick from the debilitating climate of the region.  Due to his illness, Benedetto was forced to resign as bishop of Novara and was replaced by his brother Giulio in 1654. 

Following his stint in Novara, Benedetto lived quietly in Rome until his election to the papacy.  His life prior to his selection as Pope was extraordinary in itself:

One may admit that mere length of service commands attention, and that this entire phase of his [life] may well be appreciated as propaedeutic to the awesome responsibility as pontiff.  Tax collector extraordinary, rising from an obscure governor of a remote and insignificant region to the dignity of a cardinal, papal legate at Ferrara, a priest and bishop at middle-age, and finally an influential member of the powerful Roman curia, each of these successive positions of trust and accountability matured him for the burdens of his pontificate.[15] 


Benedetto becomes Pope Innocent XI

            Benedetto was a strong candidate to become Pope following the death of Pope Clement IX in 1669.  However, Benedetto did not yet feel qualified for the position and his humility mitigated against his election.  Moreover, Louis XIV, the powerful king of France, had the power of exclusion and opposed Benedetto’s election during the conclave of 1669.  Following Pope Clement X’s death in 1676, the public opinion was that Benedetto would become the new Pope.  Based in large part on the widespread support for Benedetto, Louis XIV did not utilize his power of exclusion and acquiesced in Benedetto’s candidacy.[16]  On September 21, 1676, after a two-month conclave, Benedetto was chosen as Clement X’s successor, and took the name Innocent XI.    


Louis XIV and Innocent XI

Louis XIV, the king of France, and Innocent XI were involved in a power struggle throughout Innocent’s papacy.  In fact, one commentator has suggested that Innocent XI was Louis XIV’s greatest enemy.[17]  The origins of their struggle were Louis XIV’s absolutist policies.  Already the most powerful king in Europe, Louis XIV extended the right of regalia while Clement X was Pope.  Extending the right of regalia allowed Louis to make unrestricted appointments to ecclesiastical offices and manage the income of vacant sees and abbeys.  In April of 1682 Louis XIV adopted the four Gallican Articles, which, among other things, asserted that the king was in no way subject to the pope in temporal matters.  Not surprisingly, Innocent XI rejected Louis XIV’s extension of the right of regalia and the Articles by refusing to approve the appointment of bishops that subscribed to them.    

Louis XIV hoped his efforts to unite France under Catholicism would appease the Pope and lead to concessions in his attempt to extend the right of regalia.  Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes as part of his efforts to ease the tensions between himself and Pope Innocent XI.  Before its revocation, the Edict granted the Huguenots the right to worship as Protestants without persecution from the state.  Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes included the order to destroy Huguenot churches, as well as close Protestant schools.  The policy also led to a regime in which French Catholics, known as the dragonnades, forced Huegonots to convert to Catholicism at gunpoint.  As a result of Louis’ persecution of the Huegonots, approximately 300,000 Huguenots fled France, many of them going to England.[18]

Considering the climate of the time it is not surprising that Pope Innocent initially supported Louis XIV’s revocation of the edict of Nantes.  The Huguenots were well-known for their criticisms of the methods of worship in the Roman Catholic Church, in particular the focus on ritual.  Huguenots believed that icons of the Catholic Church did not lead to redemption. They viewed the Christian faith as something to be expressed in a strict and godly life, in obedience to Biblical laws, and in gratitude for God's mercy.      

It must be understood that although Innocent XI supported the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, he did not support the religious persecution and forced conversion of the Huguenots.  “[T]he confusion arising from the edict and the concern with Innocent’s reception may be dispelled.  Toward that aim one should distinguish between the edict of revocation and the force used as an instrument of conversion.  Innocent approved the former; he condemned the latter.”[19]  After Innocent learned of the compulsive methods being used against the Huguenots in 1686, he expressed his opposition by condemning conversion through coercion:

A report by the Venetian ambassador, Girolamo Venier, bearing on Innocent’s attitude on the question of the Huguenots, is of great importance.  According to this document, Innocent openly and explicitly condemned Louis XIV’s despotism and his use of brute force; conversions, he observed, were not made by armed apostles; this was a new missionary method of which Christ our Lord had made no use.[20]


James II and Pope Innocent XI

Despite the fact that some critics have claimed Innocent possessed mediocre intellectual abilities,[21] his handling of the situation in England during the time of the Glorious Revolution showed political astuteness and probably saved the Catholic church from great embarrassment.  Pope Innocent XI was initially pleased when in 1685 an openly Catholic king, James II, assumed the throne in England.  However, Innocent was soon “suspicious of [King James II’s] subservience to Louis XIV and disapproved of his ill-judged methods of restoring Roman Catholicism in the country.”[22]  The Pope, like most Catholics at the time, was cognoscente of the negative view of Catholicism held by English citizens.  First, just seven years prior to the beginning of James II’s reign, the Popish plot fueled the already widely-accepted idea that Catholics were after British citizens.  Second, the Test Act passed in 1678 required potential members of Parliament to declare that they did not believe in transubstantiation, invocation of saints, and the sacrifice of the mass -- all Catholic rituals.  Finally, Louis XIV’s revocation of the edict of Nantes caused fear in England that England’s national religion, Protestantism, would be persecuted if James II had his way. 

At the beginning of his reign as King of England, James II promised to maintain the Church of England and the State in accordance with the existing Constitution.  This promise proved a lie.  Like his good friend Louis XIV, James II believed in absolute monarchy and used his power as King to rule in an entirely unconstitutional fashion.  Most Catholics, including most English Catholics, disapproved of James II’s absolutist tendencies:

[O]pinion on the subject may be gathered from a contemporary document, [entitled] an Instruction for a papal [diplomat] in England, which reminds [the Pope] that greater freedom for the ancient Church of England could only be obtained by means that were in harmony with the Gospel.  What was wanted was the appointment of good Bishops and the formation of a good clergy which would have to be satisfied with mere toleration.  The past had sufficiently shown that in England neither violence nor political influence would lead to the desired goal.  Neither the secular nor the regular clergy must have much to do with the court, nor must they meddle with secular affairs; above all they must on no account create the impression that they intended to violate the constitution of the country.[23]

These views inspired Innocent XI to encourage James II to institute a policy of moderation and prudence.  The Pope hoped James II would utilize political means to advance the cause of English Catholics.  Unfortunately, James used his dispensing power against the will of Parliament and the citizens of England to annul the Test Act and other restrictions on Catholics.  After that, James ordered Parliament suspended in November 1685, and it never met again during his reign.

            Innocent XI’s conflicted desires between promoting Catholicism and respecting the laws of England are most aptly demonstrated by his actions in relation to James II’s attempt to re-open political relations between England and Rome.  At the request of James II, Pope Innocent appointed Ferdinando d’Adda as his confidential agent to England.  Innocent XI was weary of the political repercussions that might occur if Adda was given too important of a position too quickly:

[Adda] was instructed not to appear from the first as an ecclesiastic and still less as a papal nuncio, for this would have led at once to a conflict with English law, and would have been interpreted as a challenge to an excited population. . . . [initially] James agreed with the Pope that . . . Adda should only appear as a distinguished foreigner who had come to study English life.  On January 5th, 1686, the Cardinal Secretary of State impressed on Adda that on no account must he pose as a papal nuncio . . .[24]

Eventually, Adda’s friendship with James II combined with James II’s desire to spread Catholicim, prompted James II to request that Adda be raised to the rank of nuncio.  Pope Innocent XI felt compelled to raise Adda to the rank of nuncio because James II had named Lord Castlemaine as the English ambassador to Rome.  However, before making the appointment, Innocent XI warned against it:

In James’ own interest the Pope also at first declined a . . . demand of the King, namely Adda’s elevation to the full rank of nuncio.  For a hundred years, he explained, the English people had not seen a papal nuncio; in view of the excitement prevailing throughout the land, the presence of such a personage would raise a storm against the King, but as both Castlemaine and Adda kept reverting to the matter, Innocent XI announced towards the end of 1686 that the nomination of the nuncio would follow as soon as Castlemaine should have been publicly received as English ambassador.[25]

The appointments of Castlemaine and Adda stirred negative sentiment against James II and likely played a role in his eventual overthrow.  After the famous acquittal of the seven bishops, several English noblemen invited William of Orange to take over as King of England.  William arrived in England on November 5, 1688.  James II subsequently fled to France.

Some have alleged that Innocent and his aides conspired with William in his plans for invading England.[26]  This view stems from Innocent’s request that James II mediate his disputes with Louis XIV.  The original request was made as early as August 1686 and the fact that it was not accepted by the Pope until October 1688, has been interpreted as a sign that the Pope was privy to William’s plans.  Commentators have argued that the Pope accepted James II’s mediation only because he knew he would not have to carry it out because of his knowledge of William’s impending invasion.  This hypothesis has been widely rejected.  The Oxford Dictionary of Popes states that “the allegation that he knew of, and privately supported, the designs of the Protestant William of Orange for displacing James is groundless.”[27]  The truth is more likely that both the Pope and Louis XIV were taken by surprise by the actions of William.  However, a recently published novel and a controversial painting have reignited this debate, and are described in detail below.

Regardless of whether Pope Innocent XI knew of William’s plans, it is not likely that Pope Innocent XI considered James II an enemy in the same sense that he did Louis XIV.  After James II fled England for France, Innocent XI ordered public prayers for him in Rome.  Moreover, in 1689 Innocent XI publicly condemned the Glorious Revolution, and urged the restoration of James II to the throne.  Pope Innocent XI was unable to fund an attempt to restore James II to power, however, as the Pope’s energies were taken up with his struggle with Louis XIV.

Innocent XI’s health suffered during the Glorious Revolution from repeated attacks of gout.  He died on August 12, 1689, less than one year after the Glorious Revolution put an end to Catholic hopes for the restoration of Catholicism in England.  Innocent XI is one of X Popes to be beatified.  Pope Pius XII announced his beatification on October 7, 1956.  


The relationship between Pope Innocent XI and William of Orange re-examined.

Two Italian historians, Rita Monaldi and Francesco Sorti, re-examined Pope Innocent XI’s relationship with William of Orange in a book entitled Imprimatur, which was published in 2002.[28]  Although the book does not purport to be of scholarly value, its appendix includes citations to documents only recently released to the public that provide a certain amount of credibility to the author’s story.  The documents cited were kept in the cellar of a palace belonging to the Odescalchi family.  According to the book, these documents indicate that the Vatican sent an estimated 150,000 scudi (equivalent to more than $7.2 million today) to William in the 1660s through intermediaries close to the Odescalchi family.[29]  Moreover, the documents purportedly demonstrate that William offered to repay the loan in 1689 by giving Rome his personal fiefdom of Orange in southern France.[30]  The book hypothesizes that the Vatican rejected William’s offer because Innocent had died and it did not want to disclose any financial links with William.

In a recent interview Francesco Sorti confirmed that he believed Pope Innocent XI knew about William of Orange’s plans to invade England:

[I]t [is] very likely the Pope went on supporting William because Rome disapproved of James’ aggressively Catholic policies, and saw him as too close to Louis XIV of France, who clashed with Rome. . . . The Vatican managed to keep the secret for so long by destroying many of the documents. It was simply impossible for the Roman Catholic church to admit that a pope had played an important role in the Glorious Revolution.[31]

While the novel presents a compelling case, historians are skeptical of the authors’ interpretation of the Odescalchi family documents.  These historians question why the Vatican would fund William at a time (1660s) when William’s political opponents in the Dutch republic were more tolerant of Catholics than his supporters.[32]

            The documents relied on by the authors of Imprimatur are not the only indication that Pope Innocent XI and William may have had a closer relationship than most historians have suggested.  A painting completed by William of Orange’s court artist Pieter van der Muelen provides another indication of their relationship.  The old Northern Ireland government purchased the painting in 1930, and the BBC described its unveiling as follows:

Unionist MPs cheered when they heard of its acquisition. But those cheers gave way to bewilderment when the canvas was unveiled.  There in the foreground is a figure which looks like [William of Orange] on his white charger.  But floating above him on a cloud is someone who appears to be Pope Innocent XI, apparently blessing his ally as he makes his way towards the Battle of the Boyne.[33]

Art experts dispute whether the painting is the work of Pieter van der Meulen and whether the subject really is King William of Orange.  Even in the 1930s, a painting allegedly depicting Pope Innocent XI blessing William was not tolerated.  The painting was vandalized soon after it unveiling by a Glasgow councilor and his companion.  They threw red paint over Innocent XI and slashed the canvas with a knife. 

After the painting was restored, it was decided that it should not be exposed to the public.  The picture’s precise location inside the Northern Ireland Parliament buildings was unknown from 1936 to 1975.  From 1975 to 1983 the painting was in the Belfast Public Record Office.  It is currently located in the speaker’s office in the Northern Ireland Parliament buildings.  Because of its significance, there have been demands that the painting be displayed in a more public location.[34]




Bill Speck, Religion’s Role in the Glorious Revolution, 38 Hist. Today 30 (1988).


Freiherr Von Pastor Ludwig, The History of the Popes, Volume XXXII (Dom Ernest Graf ed., Lund Humphries 1957) (1940).


J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford University Press 2005) (1986).


John C. Rule, France caught between two balances: the dilemma of 1688, in The Revolution of 1688-1689 (Lois G. Schwoerer ed., Cambridge University Press 1992).


J.P. Kenyon, The Birth of the Old Pretender, 8 Hist. Today 418 (1963).


Louis O’Brien, The Huguenot Policy of Louis XIV and Pope Innocent XI, in The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 17, 29 (Peter Guilday & Leo Francis Stock & George Boniface Stratemeier eds., The Catholic University of America 1932).


Mark Devenport, King Billy painting a 'mixed blessing', BBC News Northern Ireland, Aug. 18, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/5263210.stm (last visited Dec. 5, 2007).


Maurice Ashley, Is there a case for James II?, 8 Hist. Today 347 (1963).


Menna Prestwich, Review Article: The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 73 Hist. 63 (1988).


Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes (HarperCollins 1997).


Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984).


William of Orange: funded by the Pope, www.hvk.org/articles/0901/164.html (last visited Dec. 5, 2007)



[1] See J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes 288 (Oxford University Press 2005) (1986).

[2] Freiherr Von Pastor Ludwig, The History of the Popes, Volume XXXII, 4 (Dom Ernest Graf ed., Lund Humphries 1957) (1940).

[3] Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes 433 (HarperCollins 1997).  Mr. McBrien describes Pope Innocent XI’s life as follows:

He imposed severe reductions in the papal budget and called for evangelical preaching and catechesis, the strict observance of monastic vows, careful selection of priests and bishops, and frequent reception of Holy Communion.  His attempts to persuade the cardinals to outlaw nepotism ended in failure, however, and his prohibition of carnivals was ridiculed an ignored by the people.  So ascetical was he in his life, that many suspected him of Jansenist leanings (that is, a too rigid approach to the moral life).


[4] Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 67 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984) (quoting Lippi, Vita di Papa Innocenzo XI, p. 188).

[5] Id. (quoting Michaud, Louis XIV et Innocent XI, 1:50).

[6] Id. at 12.

[7] Michelle Tauber, A Wedding to Remember, People, Dec. 4, 2006, at 90 (“. . . guests--seated inside a converted 15th-century armory in Italy's majestic Odescalchi Castle. . .”).

[8] Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 18 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984).

[9] Id.

[10] Id. at 23.

[11] Id. at 25 (quoting Guiseppe Colombo, Notizie Biografiche e Lettere di Papa, Innocenzo XI (Turin: Giuseppe, 1878), pp. 5-6).

[12] Id. at 32.

[13] Id. at 30-31.

[14] Id. at 32 (quoting Guiseppe Colombo, Notizie Biografiche e Lettere di Papa, Innocenzo XI, pp. 6-7).

[15] Id. at 45.

[16] A letter from Louis XIV disclosed his approval of Benedetto’s election:

Thus, in the event that the conclave proceeded as usual, upon the arrival of the courier I deem it well that you make known to the cardinals supporting the king’s stand that virtue, piety, and so many other qualities worthy of a successor to St. Peter have persuaded me in favor of Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi, that I am satisfied with the deference that the larger part of the Sacred College has shown in wishing to await my sentiments, before declaring themselves in his favor, and that, as the form itself had wronged me at the last conclave, for a person, for whom I had moreover so much esteem, I willingly give my approval today that it be repaired . . .

Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 61 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984).

[17] See John C. Rule, France caught between two balances: the dilemma of 1688, in The Revolution of 1688-1689 43 (Lois G. Schwoerer ed., Cambridge University Press 1992).

[18] Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 134 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984).

[19] Id. at 143.

[20] Freiherr Von Pastor Ludwig, The History of the Popes, Volume XXXII, 341 (Dom Ernest Graf ed., Lund Humphries 1957) (1940).

[21] Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 68 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984) (“The critics have . . . noted Innocent’s mediocre intellectual quality.  One must admit that his stark simplicity contradicts the finished formation of the sophisticated intellectual.”).

[22] J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes 288 (Oxford University Press 2005) (1986).

[23] Freiherr Von Pastor Ludwig, The History of the Popes, Volume XXXII 501 (Dom Ernest Graf ed., Lund Humphries 1957) (1940).

[24] Id. at 502.

[25] Id. at 504.

[26] Id. at 509.  See also Raymond J. Maras, Innocent XI: Pope of Christian Unity 183 (Cyriac K. Pullapilly & George H. Williams eds., Cross Cultural Publications, Inc. 1984).

[27] J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes 288 (Oxford University Press 2005) (1986).

[28] William of Orange: funded by the Pope, www.hvk.org/articles/0901/164.html (last visited Dec. 5, 2007); The Times of India Webpage, The Pope who paid for the Glorious Revolution, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/99944167.cms (last visited Dec. 5, 2007); Imprimatur Webpage, http://www.attomelani.net/index.php/english/imprimatur-synopsis/ (last visited Dec. 5, 2007).


[29] William of Orange: funded by the Pope, www.hvk.org/articles/0901/164.html (last visited Dec. 5, 2007).

[30] Id.

[31] Id.

[32] Id.

[33] Mark Devenport, King Billy painting a 'mixed blessing', BBC News Northern Ireland, Aug. 18, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/5263210.stm (last visited Dec. 5, 2007).

[34] Id.